1988: Christmas Mumming in a North Cotswold Town. Footnotes, Section II

Craig Fees, “Christmas Mumming in a North Cotswold Town: With Special Reference to Tourism, Urbanisation and Immigration-Related Social Change“, PhD., Institute of Dialect and Folklife Studies, School of English, University of Leeds, England (1988).

Footnotes II.1:
1860-1900. Sources.

1. Cecil Sharp, Dance Notes, copy available in Vaughan Williams Memorial Library of the English Folk Dance and Song Society, pp. 93-94. The note itself appears without obvious identifying context. It is followed by a four line verse titled “words to second strain of The Triumph” which is attributed, in parentheses, to “John Mason at Stow”. Harrop dates the note to “at all events earlier than 1914”, Peter Harrop, The Performance of English Folk Plays, op cit., p.177. The earliest Sharp appears to have visited Chipping Campden is 1909 (see Appendix C). It will be seen that I disagree with Harrop’s transcription of the second line of the first verse, which he has as “A great head and a little wit (nut? )”.

2. Harrop, The Performance of English Folk Plays, op cit., pp. 177-178.

3. Carpenter Collection, sheet 1213; copy available in the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library of the English Folk Dance and Song Society.

4. EvJ 13.7.1935,2.

5. The photograph was published in EvJ 16.1.1937,16. For dating and discussion of the photograph and its publication history, see Keith Chandler, “The Archival Morris Photographs 2: Campden Morice Dancers, Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire, 1896”, English Dance and Song 46:3 Autumn/Winter 1984),6-8.

6. EvJ 23.1.1937,13: “Stalwarts of the Past. – The photograph published last week in our “Stalwarts of the Past” feature was of the Campden Morris Dancers and not the Campden Mumming as was stated.”

7. EvJ 16.12.1939,13.

8. My transcription. BBC Record No. 10029f, 20.12.1946; Harrop Tape 28.

Footnotes

II.2: 1860-1900.

Social/Historical Context

1. On the Britannia Society’s 35th anniversary in 1876, the Evesham Journal reported that farmers William Rimell and Nathan Izod had founded the Society in 1841 in conjunction with the late W. Haines, S. Hiron and G. Ward. “It commenced with only ten members, and the advantages of benefit societies were so little recognized by the working men of the district at that time, that for several years the numbers did not reach a score. To encourage the movement, the late Canon Kennaway, offered a premium of ten pounds for every ten additional members that could be secured.” “The ladies of Campden” had given the club “their splendid silk banner…some years ago..”, EvJ 10.6.1876,8. Upon the suggestion of William Rimell, the Earl of Gainsborough had built them a club room for meetings at the Noel Arms Hotel which they first used in 1868, EvJ 13.6.1868.6; 10.6.1876,8.

Other charitable/self-help initiatives included the Viscountess Campden’s clothing club: “Viscount and Viscountess Campden’s usual donation of clothing was distributed on Tuesday last, to 80 poor persons, of Campden, Westington, and Broad Campden, members of her ladyship’s clothing club. The depositors in this club are thus partakers of a charity which is very seasonable and acceptable at the approach of winter, and all appeared with cheerful countenances, very grateful for her ladyship’s bounty”, EvJ 15.11.1862, 4.

In 1868, a Cottagers’ Dispensary or ‘Medical Provident Institution’ was initiated in Campden: “Working men and servants, their wives and children…<residing> within a radius of three miles from the Town Hall of Chipping Campden may become members of the institution. By payment of one penny per week, they will become entitled to medical attendance and medicine whenever they may require them”, EvJ 21.3.1868,6.

2. EvJ 26.11.1892,3.

3. EvJ 15.11.1862,4.

4. EvJ 1.5.1869,7.

5. EvJ 31.8.1867,4.

6. EvJ 11.7.1868,6.

7. Due to the sustained prosperity of the 1850s-1870s the era has been called the Golden Age of English Agriculture. See, e.g., E.L. Jones, “The Changing Basis of English Agricultural Prosperity, 1853-73”, Agriculture History Review 10 (1962), 102-119.

8. EvJ 5.2.1870,7.

9. The 20th Corps of the 16th Company of the Gloucestershire Rifle Volunteers as established in 1860 consisted of Enrolled Members and Honorary Members (as did the Britannia Benefit Society) see II.2), and according to the Rules published in 1862, “The annual subscription of Enrolled Members shall not be less than half a guinea,” to be paid in advance in January. Candidates for admission to the corps had to be “proposed by three gentlemen, two at least of whom shall be members of the Corps”. There were a set of fines, ranging from 6d to 5s, for everything from talking in ranks to being unsober on parade: Rules of the Campden and Moreton-ln-Marsh North Cotswold Rifle Volunteer Corps (16th Gloucestershire) (1862). GRO Pc 1532. The financial and time commitment would have made it difficult for most labourers to Join. The majority of the 44 men who Enrolled in 1860, GRO PS CA M/2, 5.12.1860, appeared in the clergy, professional or commercial listings of Campden in Slattery’s Directory for 1858-59 and/or 1868, or in Kelly’s Directory for 1870. The corps was reorganised as ‘K’ Company of the 2nd Volunteer Battalion of the Gloucestershire Regiment during the Cardwell reforms of 1881 (letter, Lt. Col. (Retd.) H.L.T. Radice, Hon. Archivist, the Gloucestershire Regiment, 20.8.1984), at which point the membership may have broadened.

10. EvJ 26.12.1874,7.

11. EvJ 17.10.1874.4.

12. EvJ 8.5.1875,8.

13. EvJ 27.6.1874,5.

14. EvJ 23.1.1875,5.

15. Campden Herald 8.7.1872,8.

16. EvJ 24.10.1868,5.

17. EvJ 18.9.1869,2.

18. Campden Herald 17.7.1869,8.

19. EvJ 11.6.1870,7.

20. Superintendent William Evans’ diary, GRO Q/Y 2/3/2, 14.3.1840-26.9.1843 .

21. EvJ 12.9.1868,6.

22. EvJ 4.9.1869,5.

23. EvJ 26.11.1892,3.

24. EvJ 2.4.1870,2.

25. EvJ 7.10.1871.4.

26. EvJ 22.6.1872,5.

27. EvJ 3.8.1872,5: “On Tuesday week, a meeting was held under the elm tree, when a large number of labourers mustered to hear an address from Mr. Russell, late of Stratford-on-Avon…There was no chairman, and the meeting was a failure.”

28. EvJ 7.9.1872,5. The meeting took place under the Elm Tree, with a Blockley farmer, G.C. Smith, in the chair. Arch spoke for an hour and a half to “both employees and employers.” The proposition that “The meeting would support in every possible manner the interests of the National Labourers Union Association,” was seconded by Charles Smith, a Campden tinman, “and the chairman having asked if there was any amendment to be proposed, declared the motion carried.” The platform was then thrown open, a young labourer speaking for emigration. There was a vote of thanks to Arch and the chairman, and the meeting was brought to a close.

29. EvJ 12.4.1873,7.

30. EvJ 7.6.1873,8. Nearly two weeks before the day the EvJ 24.5.1873,8. reported: “Whitsuntide festivities – We understand that Campden will be unusually lively at the coming Whitsuntide. The Britannia Club, which holds its meeting on Whit-Thursday, is going to have two bands, the Campden band being engaged by the committee, and the “Union” members of the club having engaged the services of the Broadway band. – The Odd fellows, who hold their lodge at the Swan Inn, intend coming out strongly on Whit-Friday; banners and flags in profusion being engaged from the celebrated firm of Legg and Co. The Campden and Blockley bands are also engaged for the day’s festivities, and if only a continuance of fine weather prevails, no doubt most successful gatherings will result.”

31. Campden Herald 14.6.1873,8.

32. EvJ 7.6.1873,8.

33. EvJ 14.6.1873,3.

34. EvJ 12.7.1873,5.

35. EvJ 19.7.1873,7. The three men were Thomas Edmunds, John Foster, and Richard Beesley, none of whom appeared. They were convicted in absentia, and each fined 10s with 9s6d costs or 14 days hard labour.

36. EvJ 27.9.1873,8.

37. EvJ 28.3.1874,5.

38. EvJ 4.4.1874,5.

39. Ibid.

40. EvJ 11.4.1874,5.

41. EvJ 29.1.1876,7.

42. EvJ 29.1.1876,5.

43. EvJ 29.1.1876,7.

44. EvJ 5.2.1876.5.

45. Ibid.

46. EvJ 12.2.1876,5.

47. EvJ 25.4.1874,5.

48. EvJ 30.5.1874,8.

49. EvJ 22.5.1875,8.

50. EvJ 10.6.1876,8.

51. EvJ 9.9.1876,8.

52. EvJ 16.9.1876,8.

53. EvJ 19.9.1874,5; 26.9.1874,7.

54. EvJ 16.9.1876,8.

55. Mentioned at the Earl of Gainsborough’s rent audit, EvJ 4.12.1875,8.

56. EvJ 8.5.1877,8.

57. EvJ 21.12.1878,8; 18.1.1879,4.

58. EvJ 28.12.1878,8.

59. See correspondence in the EvJ 31.5.1879,5: “money is scarce and the general depression is so great…”; “Local Distress”, Chipping Campden Parochial Magazine March 1879; “The Weather. The Crops. The Agricultural Depression”, Chipping Campden Parochial Magazine August 1879: “No reader of this Magazine can be ignorant of the fearful depression pervading all classes of the community in our beloved country at the present time.” While welcoming the Royal Commission set up to investigate the crisis the Vicar, Robert Braithwaite, said “I cannot but deeply regret that the Government does not counsel Her Majesty to appoint “a day of national fasting and prayer”.” The cause of the crisis was clear: “Till within five years ago what nation was more prosperous, or what kingdom was so signally blessed of God? But what have we rendered unto Him? Let each one who reads the answer as in God’s presence. Sabbath desecration has increased. Neglect of the House of God is more common. Drunkenness, the source and begetter of the most fearful crimes, has lamentably grown into terrible proportions. Popery has been fostered. Our glorious reformed Protestant religion is not maintained as it ought to be. Our missions to the heathen are far from being in proportion to the enormous wealth entrusted to us.”

60. EvJ 7.6.1879,5.

61. EvJ 22.5.1880,5.

62. EvJ 3.6.1882,5.

63. EvJ 22.5.1880,5.

64. EvJ 3.6.1882,5.

65. EvJ 7.6.1884,7.

66. EvJ 19.6.1886,8.

67. EvJ 7.6.1879,5.

68. EvJ 19.5.1883,7.

69. Ibid. By the end of 1883 it was 182 (see EvJ 7.6.1884,7).

70. Ibid.

71. EvJ 30.5.1885,8.

There were a great many resentments, frustrations, and aspirations tied up in the question of allotments, which were never fully resolved. The history of allotments in Campden has not been written, but references in the Evesham Journal include; 12.11.1887,8 (extensive report of public meeting concerning allotments held by the Rural Sanitary Authority of the Shipston Union under the new Allotments Act); 10.11.1888,8; 22.12.1888,8; 12.1.1889,8; 31.8.1889,6; 1.8.1891,5. There was another movement under Section 10 of the Local Government Act of 1894; see EvJ 17.2.1900,6; 3.3.1900,2; 14.7.1900,6; 13.10.1900,6; 16.2.1901,8.

72. EvJ 27.6.1885,6.

73. EvJ 23.1.1886,7.

74. EvJ 3.4.1886,8.

75. Campden Herald 15.2.1879,5: “Notice is hereby given that Commissioners have been appointed by Her Majesty to enquire into the existing condition of the Corporations not Subject to the Municipal Corporations Act…”

76. EvJ 28.7.1883,7. The newspaper commented, “Many persons no doubt are ignorant that any such Corporation is in existence in this town, as its rights and privileges are so meagre that they are scarcely ever brought before the public…” The Act took effect on 26 March 1886.

77. EvJ 28.1.1882,5.

78. The EvJ 29.3.1884,7 reported “The picturesque street of Campden presented an unusually busy aspect on Wednesday afternoon, when the <third> annual prize teg show, supplementing the monthly cattle sale, brought a rare influx of live stock and a numerous concourse of agricultural visitors to the little town.” Correspondent Arthur Smith, in a letter about “Winchcomb, its Town and Fair”, and suggesting ways that Winchcomb could boost itself, wrote: “I understand that Chipping Campden and its stock sales have greatly benefited by the prizes periodically offered thereat”, EvJ 6.9.1902,5.

79. See EvJ 10.12.1887,7; 3.12.1887,7: 10.12.1887,7: 17.12.1887,5; 24.12.1887,3; 31.12.1887,3; 14.4.1888,7.

80. At the Christmas dinner of the Campden North Cotswold Rifle Volunteers in 1874, “The Town and Trade of Campden” was offered by Russell Hiron, with the comment “The town of Campden had improved in many ways,” citing the contribution of tradesmen to the recent church restoration fund. The toast was answered by Mark Gurton, host and owner of the Noel Arms Hotel, EvJ 26.12.1874,7. The toast does not appear to have been used again until the 1883 Britannia Benefit Society dinner.

81. EvJ 30.5.1885,8.

82. In a letter printed in EvJ 13.2.1886,7, Ulric Stanley said, “I have lived for years in the United States…” He bought the freehold property of 3 North End Terrace in Leaseborne for £300 in 1887. EvJ 3.9.1887,8.

83. EvJ 26.1.1889,6. The outgoing headmaster, the Rev. Foster, said that most of the students were the sons of farmers, with some of traders and professional men. “He added that those who had come to live at Campden for the purpose of sending their boys to that school wanted a classical education.” Ulric Stanley’s brother, J.L. Stanley, writing from Toronto, suggested that there be more technical subjects in the Grammar School, including an acre or two of land for experiments, and a workshop in which “a good mechanic gave instructions in the use of wood or iron working tools, half a day a week.”

84. Initially, it was proposed to form a “Chipping Campden Farmers’ Club”, EvJ 9.3.1889,6. Stanley suggested the title “North Cotswold Agricultural Association” so as not to exclude labourers, EvJ 27.4.1889,6. The founders were G. Haines, T. Smith, A. Coldicott, U.C. Stanley, H. Haydon, H. Dee, F. Robbins, and J. Tucker, EvJ 13.4.1889,6. One of the reasons for the organisation, according to Stanley, would be to bring influence to bear on the new County Council, EvJ 27.4.1889,6.

85. There Is a lengthy summary of the speech in the Agricultural Gazette (London), 2.10.1890,124.

86. EvJ 1.2.1890,6.

87. EvJ 21.12.1889,7.

88. The population figures are usefully summarised in Appendix A of Christopher Whitfield’s A History of Chipping Campden. op cit. p. 268. The calculations are my own.

89. EvJ 3.6.1871,5: 10.6.1876,8.

90. For the winding up of the band, see: Obituary of Fred Bennett, EvJ 30.1.1954,4: “it was one of Mr. Bennett’s biggest disappointments in later life that the young men did not come forward to support the band as they used to when he was young.” EvJ 26.4.1957,4, “Plan to Revive Campden Town Band”. The trustees of the band met in February 1961 to discuss the future of the band and instruments. “The latter have been in storage for the last four years”, EvJ 24.2.1961,6. The three people who attended the public meeting about the band in March decided to sell the instruments. Bill Pither had carried on the band for some time after Fred Bennett’s death, but the instruments had been stored in the Lygon Arms since 1957: EvJ 10.3.1961,6.

91. EvJ 25.6.1887,6.

92. See C Hobsbawm and T. Ranger, eds. The Invention of Tradition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1983.

93. EvJ 19.6.1886,8.

94. EvJ 26.6.1886,5.

95. EvJ 31.7.1886,5.

96. EvJ 28.5.1887.3.

97. EvJ 2.6.1888,8.

98. EvJ 4.1.1890,8. The programme included an opera, “Caliph for an Our”, and was organised by the Catholic Father Lloyd and presented in the Assembly Room of the Noel Arms Hotel.

99. EvJ 12.2.1887.7. In a report on Campden’s sanitary condition the week before, EvJ 5.2.1887,5, the newspaper commented: “The town owes a great deal also to its breezy position on the Cotswolds which is such as might well for beauty as well as natural salubrity, commend the place to the attention of tourists and holiday-makers in general.”

100. EvJ 12.2.1887,7.

101. EvJ 13.7.1889,6.

102. EvJ 16.8.1890,6.

103. EvJ 11.7.1891,3.

104. EvJ 1.8.1891,6.

105. EvJ 5.9.1891,8.

106. EvJ 14.5.1887,3.

107. EvJ 3.12.1892,5. “A Disgusted Ratepayer” responded EvJ 17.12.1892,7: “…because certain private individuals in Birmingham, occasional visitors to Broadway in fine summer weather, “don’t like the look of blue bricks”, the work is stopped! The question now arises: Whom should the County Council consider in the matter? The inhabitants of Broadway and their convenience and comfort in all sorts of weather, or the fads and would-be antiquarians of Birmingham or elsewhere?”. A more blistering letter had appeared EvJ 3.12.1892,5. This anticipates disputes in Campden – see IV.2; V.2.

108. EvJ 12.8.1893,7. See also EvJ 19.8.1893,7: 26.8.1893,6; 2.9.1893,6.

109. EvJ 26.8.1893,6.

110. EvJ 20.1.1894,7: 3.2.1894,7.

111. EvJ 27.10.1894,6.

112. EvJ 22.12.1894,3; sold by Will Home.

113. EvJ 23.4.1898,6.

114. Percy Rushen, The History and Antiquities of Chipping Campden, the Author, printed by George Booth, Woodbridge, 1899, ii. In his A Handbook to Chipping Campden in the County of Gloucester and Its Neighbourhood, the Author, printed by George Booth, Woodbridge, 1904, Rushen repeats many of the same statements and comments, and states the position clearly on page three: “While the author doubtless in common with many others does not wish to see Campden lose its present old world character, yet it is only right that Campden and Campdeners and the visiting public should become better acquainted, for otherwise owing to the decline of agriculture, rural districts such as this will undoubtedly succumb in a purely commercial struggle. To help to avert this calamity is the aim of this small publication which will be found to overlap in but a small degree the author’s larger illustrated volume, “The History and Antiquities of Chipping Campden…”

115. EvJ 26.3.1898,6.

116. “This has long been an eyesore to those who admire the old building…” (EvJ 19.5.1900,6).

117. See “The Discovery of the Cotswolds” chapter in Brian Smith’s The Cotswolds , B.T. Batsford, London, 1976.

118. J.R. Neve, “The Ancient Town of Chipping Campden”, The Bristol Observer 18.5.1895,1. For the attribution of the article to Neve, see EvJ 25.5.1895,7.

119. E. Guy Dawber, “Some Cotswold Villages”, Architecture December (1896),54l-552. A paper by Dawber entitled “Domestic Architecture of Campden” was read by Canon Bazely at a conference of the Gloucestershire Archaeological Society held at Campden in 1901 – see Cheltenham Chronicle and Gloucester Graphic 24.8.1901,6. This use of Campden as a conference venue is itself significant in terms of the growth of Campden tourism.

120. Quoted EvJ 22.9.1900,6.

121. EvJ 23.5.1868.6.

122. “An Odd Fellow” from Durham, wrote to the Evesham Journal in 1876: “Now, sir, it was this yearly procession and the brotherly love and fellowship that seemed to exist amongst the members of the said Cotswold lodge, that induced me to join the ranks of the Oddfellowship six years ago…”, EvJ 24.6.1876,5.

Volunteers: “It will be gratifying to the gentlemen of Campden and the neighbourhood, who are the backbone of the company, to learn that the men’s conduct and general bearing was all that could be desired both in camp and on the march, excellent order being preserved in going and returning…”, EvJ 26.7.1884,5.

There not being a regimental encampment in 1896, the local Volunteers set up an encampment in Campden itself. This extended display included a show attack on a clump of trees at the summit of the Hoo; and precision response to orders at a dinner hosted by Lady Northwick: “The whole of the life and exercises of the camp had been followed with interest by a considerable number of the towns people and neighbouring residents, and there can be no doubt but that through it recruiting will be stimulated, and that the demonstration given of thorough discipline and genuine work will result in increased interest in the company, and in more widely extended support.”

123. EvJ 25.6.1887,6.

124. Ibid.

125. Cover of the 1896 programme, reproduced in John Horne, Chipping Campden From the Grass Roots, John Knight and Sons, Evesham, printers. 198l, p. 46; the original shown to me by Mr. and Mrs. Lewis Horne.

126. EvJ 16.5.1891,7.

127. EvJ 29.8.1891,6. The inaugural meeting was held in the Baptist schoolroom, the first annual service in the Baptist Chapel. At the inaugural meeting the Baptist minister Philip Lewis said “He had no doubt that a large number of the working men of the district would be glad to connect themselves as members of a thoroughly sound benefit society which did not rest on a basis of party politics.” Men had come to him who couldn’t join the Cirencester because they weren’t Conservatives, to which a member of the audience responded: “I don’t know which will die first, the Primrose League or that, they’re both very bad.” By combining elements of a savings bank with the sick benefit aspect, and by having a man’s share-cost (he could take as many shares as he could afford, or as little as a quarter of a share) increased by l/2d. per month per year over 30, the scheme did not require a pyramid-base of young members and therefore was more secure than the old benefit societies.

128. EvJ 8.6.1895,6.

129. The EvJ 8.6.1895,6, said of the Eastbourne festival: “The novelty of the thing insured for it the wide advertisement an illustrated paper can give.” Eastbourne, photographically illustrated, The Standard Office, Eastbourne, 3rd ed., 1895, p.3 said: “The whole scene was one of great splendour and evoked encomiums from the pens of most of the leading London and provincial newspapers.” The Times of 26.4.1895,9 covered the fete, and a second in the summer, The Times 27.7.1895,9. In Eastbourne, photographically illustrated, p.3, the aim of the festival was clearly laid out: “In order to make Eastbourne additionally attractive, and to secure the presence of visitors for a first time – with the object of gaining their further patronage.”

130. EvJ 8.6.1895,6.

131. Ibid.

132. EvJ 30.5.1896,6.

133. EvJ 6.2.1886.5; 23.1.1886,8; 13.2.1886,8 (visiting Campden); 27.2.1886,6; 27.2.1886,7. See Roy Judge, “D’arcy Ferris and the Bidford Morris”, Folk Music Journal 4:5 (1984), 443-480.

134. EvJ 30.5.1896,6. See Keith Chandler, “The Archival Morris Photographs 2; Campden Morice Dancers, Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire, 1896”. English Folk Dance and Song 46:3 (1984), 6-8.

135. EvJ 12.6.1897,6.

136. EvJ 9.9.1899.8.

137. EvJ 20.8.1898,6.

138. EvJ 31.5.1890,7.

139. EvJ 2.12.1899,7.

140. For the purposes of voting, Campden parish was divided into three wards, each with three representatives. Of the six Lower and Broad Campden Ward representatives, five were nominees of the Liberal Party, EvJ 22.12.1894,7. At the Liberal meeting at which their candidates were chosen, Frank Coombes (the agent) “said that at a previous meeting to consider the election question, a letter was read from the Vicar suggesting that all parties in Campden should have a meeting and agree to work the elections on non-political and unsectarian grounds, and that the meeting should select the members. With that proposition, said Mr. Combes, they did not agree, and they passed a resolution to the effect that they felt themselves entitled to six Liberal members of the nine to be elected… he gathered that non-political meant all Conservatives, and non-sectarian all churchmen.”

141. J.R. Neve. “The Ancient Town of Chipping Campden”, op cit.

142. EvJ 21.11.1896,5.

143. One of the greatest disappointments was the parish council’s inability to provide allotments; see footnote 71, and EvJ 13.7.1895, 3.

144. EvJ 19.3.1898,3.

145. EvJ 16.6.1900,6.

Footnotes

II.3:1860-1900. Discussion.

1. He was given a private baptism on September 4, 1861.

2. EvJ 13.7.1935,2.

3. The annual flower show in 1886 included an exhibit of some Malagasy portraits, painted by natives, which J.C. Kingzett had brought from Madagascar, EvJ 4.9.1886,8.

4. Obituary of W.H. Kingzett is in EvJ 2.7.1870,8.

5. He says generally: “Looking back to the early seventies it seems to me that the leading men of those days must have been pretty wide-awake, for a number of outstanding improvements were carried out at that period”. The only specific date he gives is: “It was about 1870 that the gasworks were built”: for their opening, see EvJ 5.2.1870,8. His other statements are more general:

“The earliest uniform I remember was a light grey with (I think) black facings. Their guns at that time were of the old smooth-bore muzzle-loader type…When breechloading rifles were substituted for the old musketry, it was considered marvellous”. The Volunteers got new uniforms of dark green with scarlet facings and breech-loading Snider rifles in 1871, EvJ 15.7.1871,5: 25.2.1871,5.

He speaks of the Penny Readings organised by the Rev. Nisbet, who was memorialised for the same and left Campden in 1872, EvJ 7.12.1872,5.

He speaks of pipes being laid along both sides of the street, probably referring to a major sewerage project mooted in 1873, EvJ 13.9.1873,8, and mentions the restoration of the parish church, which took place in 1874.

6. William Rimell, who farmed out of the Court House in Campden, married Ann Kingzett Roberts in St. James Church on 15.8.1835: J.C. Kingzett’s aunt, Caroline Elizabeth Kingzett. married Mickleton farmer Joseph Such in St. James Church on 2.5.1842; his uncle Arthur Charles Kingzett married Elizabeth Anne Manton, daughter of influential farmer John Manton, in St. James Church on 5.7.1842. When the Kingzetts left Wolds End farmhouse in 1875, retiring farmer John Rimell, another relative, moved in.

7. See his obituary, EvJ 2.7.1870,8, and his funeral notice: EvJ 9.7.1870,7.

8. 1861 Census, North side 1, Wolds End.

9. 1871 Census, North Side 1, Wolds End Farm.

10. Chipping Campden parish records, marriage by banns: 6.1.1845, William Dowler to Mary Gibbs Blotheridge.

11. Chipping Campden parish records, marriage. 23.8.1838: Joseph Blotheridge labourer of Chipping Campden son of Thomas Blotheridge. labourer, to Lucy Booker of Chipping Campden; witnessed by John Blotheridge (his mark) and Mary Gibbs Blotheridge (her mark).

12. Chipping Campden parish records, marriage, 9.1.1844: William Sermon Blotheridge (his mark) labourer of Chipping Campden, son of Thomas Blotheridge. labourer, to Emma Carter (her mark).

13. Chipping Campden parish records, marriage, 19.6.1848: David Newhall (his mark) labourer of Chipping Campden, to Sarah Elizabeth Brotheridge (her mark) of Chipping Campden, daughter of Thomas Brotheridge: witnessed by Mary Dowler (her mark).

14. 1851 census

197 Sheep Street

Thomas Brotheridge head mar 58 Agricultural Labourer ?

Fanny wife mar 60

Chipping Campden

Thomas son unmar 18 Agricultural Labourer

Chipping Campden

John Hartwell g-son ?

Mary Hartwell g-daughter 6 Scholar

Chipping Campden

Henry Brotheridge g-son 8 Scholar

Chipping Campden

Joyce Brotheridge g-daughter 6 Scholar

Chipping Campden Jane Newhall g-daughter 2 Scholar

Chipping Campden

15. Chipping Campden parish records, burial 23.7.1858: Thomas Brotheridge of Chipping Campden, 65 years old.

16. 1861 census

202 Broad Campden

Robert Riley head unmar 78 ?

Thomas Botheridge nephew mar 28 Agricultural Labourer

Mary niece 36

Fanny g-niece 5 scholar

Mary H. g-niece 4 scholar

Ellen g-niece 3 scholar

17. Petty Sessions Minutes, GRO PS CA M1/12, 16.4.1890.

18. EvJ 19.4.1890,7.

19. Petty Sessions Minutes, GRO PS CA M1/12, 15.5.1901, Charles Aston vs. Keen Senior.

20. Chipping Campden parish records, marriage, 30.9.1870.

21. Church census carried out sometime in late 1929 and early 1930, held in St. James Church Muniment Room. The first listing for entry 277, on Park Road West, is Botheridge, Harry, replaced by Robert Atkyns. The second listing on entry 268, Park Road West, is “? Brotheridge Harry fr 277”, presumably implying that Mr. Brotheridge was in the process of moving at about the time the census was being carried out.

22. Carpenter Collection, op cit., sheet 1213.

23. See footnote 10.

24. See footnote 13.

25. See footnote 14.

26. See footnote 15.

27. See footnote 16.

28. Blrthdate from St. James Boys’ School Admission Register of 15.10.1906; baptised 4.6.1899, son of John and Mary Botheridge of Lapstone Farm, where John Botheridge was a labourer.

29. Chipping Campden parish records, marriage, 26.6.1889: John Botheridge (23? 29?) labourer of Chipping Campden, son of John Charles Botheridge, labourer, to Mary Plested (23) of Oxford, daughter of George Plested, labourer. She was baptised in St. James Church on 28.1.1866, daughter of Mary and George Plested; he was listed as a labourer.

30. John Botheridge was baptised in St. James Church on 31.7.1864, the son of John Botheridge and Anne Wallis of Chipping Campden, and his father was listed as a labourer.

31. St. James Mixed/Infants’ School logbook, 12.10.1897.

32. St. James Boys’ School Admissions Register, 15.10.1906.

33. See. e.g., St. James Mixed/ Infants School Admission Register, 26.4.1897: 4.2.1895.

34. See footnote 28.

35. See Chipping Campden parish records, marriages: Arthur Brotheridge, 11.10.1926 and George Brotheridge 18.8.1926.

36. The Baptist minister, Philip Lewis, wrote to the EvJ 4.5.1907,5. that “One reason he <Louis Dease, the Earl of Gainsborough’s agent> gave me in urging me to accept the office <as a manager of the Catholic school> was that a large proportion of the scholars were non-Catholics, and that many of them attend the Baptist and Wesleyan Sunday Schools.”

See, for example, St. Catharine’s School logbook: half holiday because of “tea party for Baptists” (13.7.1899); “The Church of England Sunday School had their tea-party this afternoon, consequently no school” (26.7.1900); 84% attendance, lowest in year: “This was caused by a number of the children being absent on the Fete Day of the Wesleyan and Baptist Sunday Schools” (10.7.1903); another half holiday due to Baptist tea party (12.7.1906); four children change to Church School (25.9.1908); “Attendance not so good as last week, owing to the Baptists giving a tea party on Monday afternoon several of our children being members of their Sunday School” (29.9.1907).

37. Chipping Campden parish records, marriages, 16.7.1924.

38. 1871 census

5 Leaseborne

Charles Brotheridge 32 head Agricultural Labourer Chipping Campden

Elizabeth 23 wife Chipping Campden

Henry 5 son Scholar Chipping Campden

Charles Foster 3 son Scholar Chipping Campden

Richard William 1 son – Chipping Campden

39. See his obituary, EvJ 15.10.1927,14.

40. For example, St. James Mixed/Infants’ School logbook 20.6.1871; 15.12.1876; 2.12.1881; 31.10.1884.

41. EvJ 23.3.1878,5.

42. St. James Mixed/Infants’ School logbook, 31.7.1871.

43. St. James Mixed/Infants’ School logbook, 20.6.1874.

44. Campden Petty Sessions Minutes, GRO PS CA M1/4, 16.11.l887 for Shadrack, Hubert and Edgar; 4.2.1891 for Hubert.

45. For his service record, see Register of police pensioners, 1850-1932. GRO Q/Y 1/14/1; for retirement, see EvJ 15.10.1927,14 (the obituary for his father) and footnote 21 above.

46. See footnote 21.

47. For extant information on carolling, see III.3.3 fn 37; and IV.3 fn 32.

48. Keith Chandler, “The Archival Morris Photographs 2”, op cit.

49. Recorded interview with George Greenall 29.12.1981, RR2.

50. Campden Petty Sessions Minutes, GRO PS CA Ml/6, 16.4.1890. The case was originally scheduled for 15.1.1890, but Brotheridge failed to appear, and a warrant was issued.

51. Ibid. Compare EvJ 4.12.1875,8, a report of a Campden Petty Sessions case against Thomas Spiers and William Wright of Mickleton, who were charged with being drunk at Mickleton on 25.11.1875: “Defenders pleaded not guilty, and in defense said they were bell-ringers. There had been two weddings on the day in question, and they had their supper at the King’s Arms at night. They were merry, but not drunk.” The case was complicated by the fact that they had not, at first, given their proper names, but even so they were fined a lenient 10s to include costs. King’s Arms landlord John Wyatt was also convicted of permitting drunkenness, and argued “It was well known that bell-ringers, after handling their ropes, wanted to “moisten their clay”.”

52. The delay between the offence and the hearing was due to Brotheridge absconding; further, according to EvJ 19.4.1890,7, Mrs. Brotheridge and Thomas Benfield were “severely reprimanded…for the way they had given their evidence, and tried to blacken the character of the policeman.” Thus the heavy fine was imposed by the magistrates “To mark their sense of the enormity of such a thing…”

53. EvJ 19.4.1890,7; Evesham Standard 19.4.1890,3.

54. Evesham Standard 19.4.1890,3.

55. EvJ 26.10.1907,6: E.A.B. Barnard’s “Notes and Queries” column mentioned mumming and requested further information.

The Christmas Supplement which came with the Evesham Journal 21.12.1907 contained an article on page one by the Rev. H.B. Freeman, Vicar of Burton-on-Trent, on “Christmas in a Country Parish” with a section headed “Mummers”: “On Boxing Day one custom of centuries is still rigorously observed. All the farm hands go off to make merry at their own homes, and it is pleasant to see with what cheerfulness the masters and mistresses buckle to, and do the necessary work. On this day the pranks of the old English mummers have by no means died out, and these worthies, who came from some eight miles distant, are sure to take Cottendon on their round before dark. Good store of pence will await these gentlemen with bashed top hats and white coats gay with fluttering and many coloured ribbons. Their performance seems to be a degenerate version of the ancient sword dance of the North. The scene where one of the mummers is knocked down, lies apparently lifeless, but eventually is revived by his comrades on an exhibition of “doctor’s stuff” always wins laughter and applause.”

In 1909 in his “Notes and Queries” column no. 132, EvJ 23.1.1909, Barnard writes: “One is glad to chronicle, too, the re-appearance, after a long period of years of “Christmas Mummers” in the streets of Evesham during the last days of the year which has recently ended.”

56. His son Wilfrid was born 3.4.1892 in Boxted. Essex, and it was registered in the district of Lexden. sub-district of Fordham, Essex, on the twelfth of May 1892. Henry Keeley’s occupation was listed in the birth registration as “Farmer”.

57. See discussion of the broadcast in IV.3.

58. Census 1881

S155 Watery Lane Keeley

James head 56 Agricultural Labourer Chipping Campden

Mary A. wife 57 Chipping Campden

Henry son 23 Agricultural Labourer Chipping Campden

James son 18 Agricultural Labourer Chipping Campden

Minnie daughter 10 Scholar Chipping Campden

Rose daughter 8 Scholar Chipping Campden

He married Susannah Hughes in St. James Church 5.11.1881, when his age was given as 20.

59. EvJ 7.11.1931,5.

60. When his son Henry Frederick was born 27.11.1884 (see his birth certificate: Hendon registration district. Willesden sub-district, Middlesex; registered 6.1.1885), Keeley was working as a gardener at Brondesbury Park, which was still an estate but has now become a residential area. Neighbouring Brondesbury was described by James Thorne in his Handbook to the Environs of London (originally published in 1876, republished by Godfrey Lane Associates, printed in Chichester, 1983), p. 699, as “a new district of genteel villas”. By the birth of Ernest on 28.12.1885 (Ware registration district, Stanstead sub-district, Hertfordshire; registered 8.2.1887), Henry Keeley had moved north out of London and was a gardener in Hunsdon, near Ware, as he was when Stanley was born 29.8.1889 (Ware registration district, Stanstead sub-district, Hertfordshire; registered 1.10.1889). When Wilfrid was born 3.4.1892 (Lexden registration district, Fordham sub-district, Essex; registered 12.5.1892), Henry was listed as a farmer and had moved north of Colchester to Boxted, in Essex.

For his return to Campden: his son, Stanley Keeley. was enrolled in the St. James Mixed/Infants’ School on 22.10.1894; see Infants School Admissions Register 723.

61. For Poppet’s Alley, see St. James Mixed/Infants’ School Admission Register no. 873, 11.2.1901, Golden Keeley. For details of family, see EvJ 7.11.1931,5.

62. St. James Boys’ School Admissions Register no. 144, 19.1.1905, Golden Keeley, living in Poppet’s Alley; St. James Mixed/Infants School Admissions Register no. 1064, 6.4.1908, Mildred Keeley, living in Park Road.

63. EvJ 7.8.1920,7.

64. EvJ 7.11.1931,5.

65. EvJ 12.1.1935,5.

66. Obituary, EvJ 22.8.1936,14.

67. Ibid. 68. EvJ 7.11.1931,5.

69. C.H. Gardiner called him “that famous Chipping Campden character, the one and only Ninety Griffin, who during his life as a versatile farm worker did anything on the land from driving a plough to bird-minding in the cherry orchards, and contrived also to serve as a member of the Campden Volunteer Fire Brigade”, EvJ 29.4.1960,8. Griffin appears in H.J. Massingham’s Wold Without End.,Cobden-Sanderson, London 1932, pp.207-208.

70. EvJ 16.12.1939,13.

71. See Keith Chandler, “The Archival Morris Photographs 2”, op cit.

72. EvJ 23.1.1937,13.

73. George Greenall’s obituary, EvJ 28.9.1935,15; wedding of Percy Newman, EvJ 4.1.1936,15: marriage of Henry Hart, EvJ 16.10.1937,10.

74. As per Mr. Don Ellis, Campden funeral director from the 1930s, now retired.

75. For example, see the obituary of George Greenall (junior) in EvJ 1.11.1984.4, and my correction of it, EvJ 8.11.1984,10.

76. For their quarrelling see, for example, Petty Sessions Minutes, GRO PS CA M1/15, 24.9.1919; 16.3.1921.

77. EvJ 16.12.1939,13.

78. The James Madison Carpenter note is quoted in II.1. Recorded interview, George Greenall 29.12.1981, RR2.

79. Carpenter: on his son’s marriage record; Chipping Campden parish records, marriage, 22.7.1899.

80. According to his obituary, EvJ 28.9.1935,15. The earliest record of which I am aware of the Greenalls in Campden concerns the entry of his brothers Ernest and William into the Boys’ School: St. James Boys’ School logbook 4.11.1881.

81. St. James Boys’ School logbook 9.7.1883; 10.7.1883; 16.11.1883.

82. Petty Sessions Minutes, GRO PS CA M1/3, 16.12.1885; EvJ 19.12.1885,8. The other two boys were George Taylor and Richard Keen.

83. According to his obituary, EvJ 28.9.1935,15.

84. Ibid.

85. Petty Sessions Minutes, GRO PS CA M1/11, 2.11.1898; EvJ 5.11.1898. The other two young men were Albert Merriman and Charles Keen.

86. Chipping Campden parish records, marriage, 22.7.1899.

87. Obituary, EvJ 28.9.1935,15.

88. Recorded interview, George Greenall 29.12.1981, RR2a.

89. Obituary, EvJ 28.9.1935,15.

90. St. James Mixed/Infants’ School Admission Register, no. 1044, 8.4.1904, daughter Florence Greenall.

91. St. James Mixed/Infants’ School Admission Register, no. 1081, 21.9.1908, daughter Ellen Greenall.

92. St. James Church Records, Muniment Room, Campden Charities. “Church Beef Charity”, 1910.

93. Ibid., 1912.

94. EvJ 7.6.1913,11.

95. Chipping Campden parish records, baptism, 21.9.1913: daughter Fanny Bertha Greenall.

96. St. James Mixed/Infants’ School Admission Register, no. 1253, 7.9.1914, son George.

97. St. James Church Records, Muniment Room, Campden Charities, “Beef Charity”, 1915.

98. See footnotes 92, 93 and 97. This was not a charity for which one was eligible in consecutive years. The Greenalls received it in 1910, 1912, 1915, 1917, 1919, 1921, 1923, and 1925.

99. See Ernest Buckland. quoted in IIJ.1; Jack Tomes, multiple personal communications.

100. In Chipping Campden parish records, marriage 25.10.1863, he is listed as a groom. In the censuses of 1871 (North side 16, 1 Church Street) and 1881 (South side 25, Church Street), his father Benjamin is listed as an agricultural labourer; Benjamin is listed as a groom in the marriage record of his son William in St. James Church on 15.4.1895: and as a warehouseman in the marriage record of his son Benjamin in St. James Church, 27.4.1898. In son Tom Benfield’s marriage certificate of July 1898 (see fn 107) he was listed as a traveller.

101. Chipping Campden parish records, marriage 15.4.1895, where he is listed as a groom; son Frederick’s baptismal record, 6.2.1896, where he is listed as a coachman; daughter Elizabeth’s marriage record, 26.9.1931, where he is listed as a labourer; son Ernest’s marriage record, 8.9.1934, where he is listed as a haulier (retired).

102. See his obituary. EvJ 10.12.1938.5: “Nearly forty years ago he took up the appointment of railway station busman for Mr. Albert Tanner, the then proprietor of the Noel Arms Hotel, who was also the local Great Western Railway agent. For many years deceased followed his daily occupation of conveying passengers to and from the railway station, and subsequently became known to a wide circle, and his familiar figure on the horse-drawn bus became quite an institution of the Town. He continued at this work until Mr. Tanner retired from business, and the railway side of his business was transferred. “Ben the busman” as he was known, remained on at the Hotel for Mr. H.J. Berry during his occupation of it for some years, and when Mr. Berry left the Noel to take over the British Camp Hotel, near Malvern, Ben followed him there, and remained in his employ for nearly twelve years, but was a frequent visitor to Campden, and eventually came home permanently. He was a member of two of Campden’s oldest families, and was a popular and genial resident.” It mentions that he was also a gardener.

103. Chipping Campden parish records, marriage, 15.4.1895.

104. Campden Petty Sessions Minutes 4.12.1895: EvJ 7.12.1895,6.

105. Obituary, EvJ 7.11.1942, 8.

106. Chipping Campden parish records, marriage, 27.4.1898.

107. Marriage certificate, number 297, 10 July 1898. The Parish Church of Tottenham, Middlesex, Registration District of Edmonton.

108. See II.l.

109. St. James Church Records, Muniment Room, Campden Charities “Beef Charity”, 1916. He was in receipt of the beef charity in 1918, 1920, 1922, 1924 and 1926.

110. EvJ I.7.1933,16.

111. EvJ 7.11.1942,8; see V.3 fn 9.