1988: Christmas Mumming in a North Cotswold Town. Footnotes, Section V

Craig Fees, “Christmas Mumming in a North Cotswold Town: With Special Reference to Tourism, Urbanisation and Immigration-Related Social Change“, PhD., Institute of Dialect and Folklife Studies, School of English, University of Leeds, England (1988).

Footnotes V.l:
1946-Present, Sources

1. TocH Newsletter no. 84, Sept. 1946.

2. TocH Newsletter no. 75, Dec. 1945.

3. TocH Newsletter no. 76, Jan. 1946.

4. The Radio Times 20.12.1946, Christmas Eve listing.

5. The logbook for BBC programmes is called the Programme-as-Broadcast, and files by date and time of broadcast, in this case 24.12.1946, broadcast 2030-2100 from London.

6. Available for listening in the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library of the English Folk Dance and Song Society, Cecil Sharp House, London.

7. Helm: Ordish Papers, vol. IV, pp. 32-35,37: Vaughan Williams Memorial Library. Harrop: The Performance of English Folk Plays, op cit., p. 205-213.

8. H.J. Massingham, The Faith of a Fieldsman, Museum Press, London 1951, p.47.

9. H.J. Massingham, “The Mummers’ Play”, Out-of-Doors 13:9 (Dec. 1951), 28. Pages 27-28 quoted above in IV.l fn 125.

10. EvJ 3.1.1953,3.

11. EvJ 26.4.1952,3: 31.5.1952,6.

12. Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire, The Visitors’ Guide, Homeland Association Ltd., London, 1953, p. 19.

13. EvJ 16.2.1952,6.

14. L.E. Wells, “Mummers Day”, Coming Events in Britain, British Travel and Holidays Association, Dec. 1953, p.27.

15. EvJ 3.1.1958,4.

16. Christopher Whitfield, A History of Chipping Campden, op cit., p.242.

17. Letter Christopher Whitfield to Dr. E.C. Cawte, 11.8.1962, and accompanying manuscript, “The Christmas Mummers” (see Appendix G), Cawte Collection.

18. EvJ 31.3.1961,6.

19. Chipping Campden Official Guide, Issued by authority of the Chipping Campden Parish Council in conjunction with Chipping Campden Chamber of Trade, the British Publishing Company, Gloucester, nd. (1964).

20. Oliver Morris, “The Old Broadway Mummers Play”, EvJ 24.12.1965,8; letter from R. Turner on the Snowshill Mummers Play, EvJ 31.12.1965,13. See also correspondence from Paul Crossfield of Snowshill Manor, “Mummers”, EvJ 14.l.1966,11: “I should like, through you, sir, to assure Mr. Buckland that the Snowshill Mummers are still very much alive. There was, for instance, a performance in Snowshill Manor this winter, before a delighted and immensely appreciative audience of 70 local people. The traditional version, as described by Mr. Turner in your column, was followed.”

21. EvJ 7.1.1966,9.

22. Letter Richard Todd to Craig Fees 20.10.1982. For my dating, see EvJ 17.10.1968,1, in which it is reported that Richard Todd will be moving to Maidenwell Manor in Broad Campden at the end of November; and EvJ 29.5.1969,3, in which it is reported that Richard Todd is selling the house in order to move closer to London.

23. Letter William M. Davis to Ernest Buckland, 29.10.1970.

24. Draft of Letter Ernest Buckland to William Davis, nd., written on ibid.

25. I have tried Mr. Davis’ 1970 address, where he was not known; the Maryland State Department of Education, which searched teacher certification records and the University of Maryland catalogue for faculty names; and the Alumni Office of the University of Maryland, which supplied an address at which he was not known.

26. EvJ 11.2.1971,1, “The Day Santa Stripped off in a Restaurant”.

27. Richard Chidlaw and Brian Hayward, Gloucestershire Folk Drama and the Christmas Wassail, ms., nd. p. 32.

28. Letter Tub Reynolds to Ernest Buckland. nd., in possession of Jack Tomes. With the help of the University of Bath Students’ Union Information Officer in 1984, Neil Murray, I have checked the available issues of SUL, the University newspaper, from the period around the performance: 26.10.1972, 9.11.1972, 23.11.1972, 7.12.1972. I have not, unfortunately, examined the Students’ Union file of outgoing correspondence which Mr. Murray kindly drew to my attention.

29. Letter David Bland to Craig Fees 5.2.1985.

30. EvJ 10.1.1974,1.

31. EvJ 28.2.1974,2.

32. Letter Bert Stanley to Jack Tomes 21.10.1975; in the possession of Jack Tomes.

33. EvJ 17.2.1977,2.

34. EvJ 29.6.1978,2.

35. Peter K. Harrop, The Performance of English Folk Plays, op cit. Interview with Jack Tomes 4.12.1978, Harrop Tape 17.

36. Cited in Harrop’s section in The Performance of English Folk Plays, ibid., on Campden are: Letter from Mrs. Agnes Buckland to Peter Harrop 26.4.1978; letter from Jack Tomes to Peter Harrop undated, July 1978; conversation with Jack Tomes 4.12.1978, 14.12.1978 (which I query), 24.12.1978, and with his sons, 24.12.1978; letter from G. Douglas to Peter Harrop 4.12.1979; conversation with G. Black 23.12.1979, 24.12.1979; conversation with female Campden resident (barmaid) 24.12.1979; conversation with male Campden resident 24.12.1979; conversation with Alan Keyte (misunderstood as Alan Kyle) 24.12.1979.

37. Harrop, The Performance of English Folk Plays, op cit., pp. 218-238.

38. Letter Col. A.C. Noel to Craig Fees, 6.12.1982.

39. Diana Alexander, “Cotswold Christmas Miscellany”, Cotswold Life, Dec:158 (1981), 26-37.

40. Col. Geoffrey Powell, The Book of Campden, op cit., p. 100. In manuscript notes to the book, lodged with the Gloucestershire Record Office, GRO D4517, Col. Powell cites his source as “Mr. Tomes, conversation”. I know from speaking with Col. Powell that he was referring to Jack Tomes.

41. Copy held in Vaughan Williams Memorial Library of the English Folk Dance and Song Society. For extant transcriptions see fn 7 above.

42. The Harrop tapes were deposited with the sound archives of the Institute of Dialect and Folklife Studies of the University of Leeds. With the closure of the Institute access to these tapes is, of course, problematic. I listened to all of those housed in the archive prior to June 1982.

43. The Uher 2000 Report L supplied by the Institute of Dialect and Folklife Studies proved unreliable in the field, much to my dismay. From 1982-1985 the majority of my recording was on a Sony TCS 310. From 1985 my main recorder has been a Sony Walkman Professional, with a Sony ECM 929LT microphone.

44. Conversation with Jack Tomes, 1.11.1983; 23.12.1985.

45. Tomes Collection, item 9.

46. Harrop op cit., pp.237-238. Information on failure of photographs to turn out from Harrop’s dissertation adviser, Tony Green.

47. Shown to me by Jack Tomes in 1982.

48. By reference to the British parliamentary system, in which the party out of power forms a “shadow cabinet” which matches and challenges the government, and prepares a basis from which a governmental cabinet could be formed in the event of an election victory.

49. Jack Tomes in interview with Peter Harrop 4.12.1978, Harrop Tape 17.

50. BBC TV Programme-as-Broadcast film no. 18, Jan-Feb 1959, 2.1.1959.

51. See his obituary in EvJ 23.9.1966,2. He had received an MBE in the New Year’s honours list at the beginning of the year, at which time the Evesham Journal 7.1.1966,1 commented: “He has collected, and sung, the half-remembered folksongs of the region.”

52. BBC Written Archives Centre, M18/9, “Birmingham Talks Memo, Folk Music and Dialect File 1 1952”; letter from producer Paul Humphries to Peter Kennedy 11.9.1952 re BBC folklore and dialect recording project: “I have also written to Charles Gardiner, of Evesham, who did a programme for me on Gloucestershire dialect, and he will be delighted to help.” See also C.H. Gardiner’s reply to Paul Humphries, 16.9.1952, expressing his willingness to help.

53. H.J. Massingham, Remembrance, op cit., p. 79. Massingham describes this book, written “with a friend of mine, C.H. Gardiner of the Evesham R.D.C.”, in The English Countryman, B.T. Batsford, London, 1942, p. 79.

54. Charles Gardiner letter to Paul Humphries, 20.12.1957, BBC Written Archives, Talks M25/499.

55. Charles Gardiner letter to Paul Humphries, 2.11.1957, ibid.

56. Paul Humphries letter to Charles Gardiner, 25.11.1957 ibid.

57. Charles Gardiner letter to Malcolm Freegard, 30.10.1958, BBC Written Archives, Midland Region TV Contributors, TV Talks: Gardiner, Charles.

58. See pencilled note on Charles Gardiner letter to Malcolm Freegard, 15.12.1958, ibid.

59. Fred Coldicott, recorded interview 4.10.1985 cas 123b; 9.4.1987 cas 203a.

60. Malcolm Freegard to Midland Region Programme Executive, Television casting form, in BBC Written Archives file quoted fn 57, above.

61. Ibid.

62. Charles Gardiner letter to Malcolm Freegard, 4.12.1958, ibid.

63. “Notes on the Mummers’ Play”, by Charles Gardiner, typescript, p. 5, ibid.

64. EvJ 1.7.1960,8. See also his “Notes on the Mummers’ Play”, ibid.

65. See Section III of this dissertation. For month of publication, see note in the front cover of the annotated version of the book held in the Shakespeare Birthplace Trust Record Office, D212/1.

66. “Down Your Way” was broadcast 6.5.1956 at 5 p.m. on the BBC’s Light Programme. George Hart was the first person interviewed; his sons George and Henry, and grandson David were interviewed ensemble later.

67. Fred Coldicott, recorded interview 28.9.1985 cas. 121b.

68. EvJ 6.3.1964,1.

69. “The Merrimix Mumming Play”, by Seamus Stewart, ms.. Chipping Campden, 4.1.1961, p.1.

70. Dovers’ Hill Games programme, 22.5.1964, Fees Collection.

71. Francis Burns, Heigh for Cotswold! A History of Robert Dovers’ Olympick Games, Robert Dovers’ Games Society, Chipping Campden, 1981, p. 39.

72. EvJ 29.5.1964,1.

73. G.W. “The Christmas Entertainment”, The Campdonian, Chipping Campden School Magazine, 1965, pp. 6-7. For the hall and restructuring of the school see The Campdonian, 1964, pp. 9-10; also, We Penguins, Chipping Campden School Parents Association Magazine, 1965.

74. G.W. “The Christmas Entertainment”, The Campdonian, Chipping Campden School Magazine, Chipping Campden, 1965, p. 7.

75. Ibid.

76. Ibid.

77. EvJ 10.1.1974,1.

78. Cotswold Journal 24.12.1986,13.

79. Various conversations.

80. In their scout hut, St. Catharine’s School grounds, 20.12.1983, Fees cas. 51-52.

81. Evesham Journal negative collection, Evesham Library. The three TocH photographs are filed as 58-60 KQ.

Footnotes V.2:
1946-Present, Background

1. TocH Newsletter no. 76 Jan. 1946.

2. Scuttlebrook: EvJ 7.2.1948,3; 1.5.1948,7: 29.5.1948,3:

Robert Dover, the founder of the old Dovers’ Games, led the Town Band and a carnival procession from St. Catharine’s Square, “to help his present-day disciples to shatter the complacent tranquility of mid-20th century Campden, with music and laughter and racing in the dignified main street.”

Footpaths: EvJ 8.5.1948,3; 3.6.1950,3.

Litter baskets: EvJ 30.10.1948,3; 1.4.1950,9.

War memorial: EvJ 24.1.1948,3; 19.6.1948,7; 3.7.1948,7; 31.7.1948,3.

3. EvJ 12.10.1946,7.

4. So much so that their passing was news: EvJ 2.4.1970,10, reported it was a dull meeting, “the authentic voice of olde Campden was not much heard…” EvJ 21.4.1975,12: “not a good laugh all evening…Where were the Campden wits, usually so ready to challenge or deflate authority?”

5. There is hardly a parish council meeting between 1952 and 1961 when a contribution from Buckland is not quoted in Evesham Journal reports. He was one of the standard authorities on Old Campden, being a principal in the footpaths disputes which arose after World War II in the attempt to establish what had and what had not been a legal right of way. These arguments often pitted one old Campden authority against another; see: EvJ 19.1.1952.6; 30.1.1954,4 (Doe Bank); 14.1.1966,3; 18.2.1966,4 (Mile Drive).

Buckland did not mince words – he once told the Council that they would be “spineless” if they did not take a certain course of action (EvJ 29.1.1955,4); he also does not appear to have been morally wrong very often, and clearly gave a channel of communication from a part of the community that had not been represented on the Council within recent history. Solid common sense, a deep sense of history, and a genuine love of Campden were his hallmarks. For contributions by him, see: EvJ 27.3.1948,3; 7.4.1951,8; 5.4.1952,3; 2.8.1952,3; 20.9.1952,4; 4.10.1952,4; 3.1.1953,3; 31.1.1953,4; 11.4.1953,4; 31.10.1953,3: 30.1.1954,4; 27.2.1954,4; 3.4.1954,4; 4.12.1954,6; 29.1.1955,4: 4.6.1955,4; 30.7.1955,7; 7.4.1956,4; 30.6.1956,4; 30.11.1956,4; 1.2.1957,4; 28.6.1957,4; 2.8.1957,4; 29.11.1957,4; 3.4.1959,4; 8.1.1960,6; 1.7.1960,6; 29.7.1960,6; 14.1.1966,3; 18.2.1966,4; 3.4.1969,1; 3.4.1969,11; 29.3.1973,1.

6. EvJ 4.12.1948,3.

7. EvJ 11.12.1948,3

8. EvJ 5.4.1952,3

9. EvJ 10.10.1953,9. The police had warned earlier in the year that the Town Hall dances were becoming noisier, EvJ 21.2.1953,4

10. EvJ 24.4.1954,4; Mr. L.W. Daniels.

11. EvJ 10.10.1953,9.

12. EvJ 29.7.1950,3: Mrs. Hadley suggested that the hotels put on a dance and donate the proceeds to the Festival of Britain Committee: “They would be the people benefitting from the increased number of visitors during the festival week.” A clipping book of the event in the Muniment Room of St. James’ Church reflects not only the extensive local coverage of the event (EvJ 19.5.1951,10; Tewkesbury Register 10.5.1951), but also national and international:

Daily Telegraph 13.5.1951, where it is reported that the chairman of the Festival of Britain Council opened Campden’s Whit Week celebration; 18.5.1951, where a message of goodwill from the King is reported.

Daily Mail 16.5.1951; 18.5.1951 (with photograph); 19(?).5.1951.

Daily Herald 14.5.1951,3.

Everybody’s Weekly, nd (May 1951), Rex Alston, “Cotswold Olympics”; 31.7.1951 (?), J.H. Begg, “Dover Against the Puritans”.

Times?, nd.

A report from an unidentified Johannesburg, S. Africa, newspaper.

13. See The Times coverage of Scuttlebrook Wake, 25.5.1961.

14. EvJ 27.2.1954,4.

15. For Chamber of Trade formation: EvJ 19.11.1949,6.

Elsley-Keeley ltd. of Campden advertised televisions in September, 1949: “When the local television station becomes operative, it is almost certain you will be interested in this comparatively new form of entertainment.”: EvJ 24.9.1949,3. The first trial broadcasts, in December, were successful: EvJ 17.12.1949,3.

16. Valene Smith, “Introduction”, Hosts and Guests, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1975. p.3.

17. EvJ 4.4.1953,9. The statement was made by L.W. Daniels (see fn 10 above).

18. EvJ 6.6.1953,4. Of the television broadcast, the Evesham Journal 6.6.1953,14, reported: “there was an exciting oneness with the capital that can never have existed before in peace or war…millions of Her Majesty’s subjects, by means of television, have participated personally in the mysterious and private rites of the ceremony of coronation itself, and felt a place in the majestic metropolitan scene, instead of reading about it or hearing a man talk about it afterwards. This time, millions can say; I was there.”

19. EvJ 28.3.1953,12.

20. Ibid.

21. Capt. Coles bought the estate on 16.2.1943 according to GRO K596/33/4 “National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949 Section 31 – Application to Quarter Sessions”. Facing page 260 in his annotated copy of A History of Chipping Campden, Shakespeare Birthplace Trust Record Office D212/1, Christopher Whitfield calls Coles “a vulgar estate agent who had married his employer’s daughter, who was very rich. His military life consisted of a few months with a captain’s rank, in the Scottish land valuation dept[?], dealing with estates taken over for training. He ‘retired’ owing to ill health. He and his wife furnished the house with the greatest luxury when virtually nothing was obtainable owing to the war, and he went about in a Rolls Royce car on farm petrol in brand new suits all through the war, when clothes rationing made it more or less impossible to get suits, and lived in unrationed luxury throughout the war. He still lives there (1962) and is disliked by Campden people, and most of his neighbours.”

22. EvJ 28.3.1953,12.

23. Ibid.

24. EvJ 27.3.1948,3.

25. EvJ 4.12.1954,6. Norman Bennett, who reported he had lived in Park Road for 70 years, said that it wasn’t the builders who were to blame for the flooding: “It was the surveyor who ripped up the old drains.” W.R. Haines said, “they filled up the natural course where the water used to come down and there was a small agricultural drain that took the water away; they filled that up too. Until the housing estate was put there, there was no flooding from that piece of land”; EvJ 31.5.1952,6.

26. EvJ 4.6.1955,4.

27. This is my assumption, based on a letter printed EvJ 10.9.1887,7, signed by 15 men – “We, the undersigned working men of Campden, humbly beg to express our hearty thanks to that lady or gentleman, or ladies and gentlemen (we make no enquiry) who have been instrumental in placing a new “tested” water tank on the side of Westington Hill – a boon not less agreeable to the eyesight of the general public than useful to toiling man and beast, and gratefully appreciated by your honourable and obedient servants, Wm. Keyte, Stephen Hancock, Thos. Frankling [sic], Charles Smith, Edwin Weaver, Charles Hughes, George Langstone, Alfred Izod, Chas. H. Skey, Thomas Griffin.”

28. EvJ 3.12.1955,5; EvJ 30.7.1955,7 reported that the trough was the property of and had been maintained by the Gainsborough Estate.

29. EvJ 4.6.1955,4.

30. EvJ 7.4.1956,4; 5.5.1956,6.

31. EvJ 1.6.1955,4.

32. EvJ 30.7.1955,4.

33. EvJ 3.6.1960,13

34. EvJ 29.7.1960,6. At the annual parish meeting in 1973, “Mr. Buckland said the real reason there were fewer young people in Campden was that they had to leave the town to make a decent living. “A boy isn’t going to school to receive a good education so that he can pick your peas,” he told the chairman.” EvJ 29.3.1973,1.

35. The Campdonian, Chipping Campden School Magazine, 1962, p.7.

36. D.E.C. Eversley and Valerie Jackson, The Blockley Region: A Statistical Study, the Blockley Study Group and the West Midlands Social and Political Research Unit, 1968.

37. Ibid., p.16.

38. EvJ 9.11.1956,4.

39. Petition, EvJ 4.3.1960,7. Counter-petition, EvJ 11.3.1960,9.

40. EvJ 1.3.1960,7.

41. We Penguins, Chipping Campden School Parents Association Magazine, Summer 1963, p.14.

42. EvJ 31.7.1961,1.

43. EvJ 3.4.1969,1.

44. EvJ 26.8.1966,1.

45. EvJ 11.8.1967,1; 31.7.1969,1; 28.8.1969,1; 18.9.1969,1; 29.7.1971,18. To celebrate the second Campden victory, and Broad Campden’s first victory that same year, the parish council put together a ceremony which was to involve a long civic procession headed by a band, the Scuttlebrook Queen and her court, and the Campden Morris Men. One of the councillors, saying he was against all this ceremony, asked “Why have we got to have a second Scuttlebrook Wake to celebrate the Bledisloe Cup competition? I fall to see why we have got to get the robes and the maces out and have a fancy-dress parade. It is a waste of public money”, EvJ 28.8.1969,1. In the event, the Morris Dancers said they would not be available. “Asked whether the criticism of the celebrations had anything to do with it, Mr. [Don] Ellis said: “There was an element of that in one or two cases, but it wasn’t the only reason.””, EvJ 4.9.1969,1. The secretary of the Gloucestershire CPRE addressed the ceremony: “Some villages don’t like to enter because they say that if they win they get flooded out with tourists. And that is no excuse because if a village is worth seeing tourists will come anyway,” EvJ 18.9.1969,1. After three successive wins, in 1972 the Rural District Council refused to join the Cotswold Tourist Association – “Campden has too many tourists”; “the council feels that many of the problems of the area are caused by an excess of tourists and there is certainly no need for any more publicity” EvJ 6.4.1972,1.

46. EvJ 31.1.1964,13; 2.10.1964,3.

47. Cotswold Chronicle May 1972,16.

48. EvJ 19.11.1965,3.

49. EvJ 1.12.1967,1.

50. EvJ 4.4.1968,19.

51. Ibid.

52. Obituary, EvJ 30.6.1977,2.

53. EvJ 30.4.1970,1.

54. EvJ 7.5.1920,11; also an editorial, page 10. EvJ 14.5.1970,13.

55. EvJ 4.6.1970,1.

56. EvJ 2.7.1970,1; an independent Remembrance Day Committee had four members of the parish council and four members of the British Legion. For the Chipping Campden and District Remembrance Sunday Committee, see EvJ 30.7.1970,1.

57. The saga of the Broad Campden pool is a complicated one. Campden parish council attempted, without luck, to interest neighbouring councils in combining funds to buy the pool after owner/operator T.D. Johnstone died. It was said that the neighbour of the pool, F. Whewell, would buy the pool if he could and close it down. Whewell said he did not oppose the pool, only the idea of the council running it; if he bought it, it would be with an eye to running it as Johnstone had. The parish council asked for more time to raise money, and after sending out 850 letters and having 80 replies felt it could bid up to £2,100. In the auction, the pool went to a Mr. and Mrs. Jarrett of Ross-on-Wye for £2,950, and they hoped to open a caravan site on the grounds next to the pool. They were told by the council that there would probably be strong opposition. It was hoped the pool could open again in the next summer, 1972, though the pool itself was said to be in poor shape.

The Rural District Council rejected the application for a full caravan site, but agreed on six for the summer; the Cotswold Planning Committee, however, rejected even these. It was at that time that the new owners wrote to the Evesham Journal 11.5.1972,13. “we must assume it is as Mr. Holland said at his meeting with us – strangers are not welcome in Campden!” The pool opened for the summer; an application for accommodation for up to 25 touring caravans was rejected by the parish council. The parish clerk, meanwhile, resigned in 1973 (EvJ 4.10.1973,1; 1.11.1973,1).

An application to build a house on the site in 1974/75 was accepted by the town council, opposed by the Campden Society, the District Council rejected it, and the owners appealed. In 1976 the pool did not open for the summer. In 1977 the Jarretts offered the running of the pool to the council, in return for a nominal rent and all expenses. A subcommittee was formed, but decided it would be too expensive to take the pool over. It has not reopened. EvJ 2.12.1971,1; 4.5.1972,9; 11.5.1972,1; 25.5.1972,5; 3.5.1973,7; 9.1.1975,1: 6.2.1975,1: 26.8.1976,15; 31.3.1977,1; 28.4.1977,1. Cotswold Chronicle Dec. 1971,17; May 1972,7.

One complicating factor is Frank Holland, who did sometimes overstep his role and authority in trying to stop things happening: Remembrance Day noted above, and see EvJ 5.4.1973,1; 12.4.1973,17.

Another curious incident from 1975/1976 involved plans for parking in Campden. The Evesham Journal remarked “like many other councils in the North Cotswolds, Chipping Campden town council now holds special planning meetings to discuss applications forwarded by the district council. The failure of a scheme for housing and car parking at the back of High Street is one of the few disappointments since closer consultation between town and district council.” The following week H. Keyte responded with a letter describing the failure from his point of view, EvJ 26.8.1976,15:

“Sir – As one of the landowners in the Campden car park scheme, I would like to rectify some of the points made in your leader of August 20.

Negotiations started with the Cotswold district council in January 1975, at which time I received two letters stating that they had no interest in my land at all.

On June 11, 1975, the Cotswold district council reversed their decision and asked for discussions to begin again. Negotiations continued until November 27,1975, when I received a letter stating that they were (through no fault of mine) using their compulsory purchase powers to acquire the land needed for the car park and housing scheme.

Negotiations dragged on in spite of a price being agreed and a contract forwarded at their request. Nothing more was heard for weeks, so I wrote asking for a firm answer.

The next I heard was that the scheme had been abandoned (another reversed decision).

I am sure that any person would think that 17 months of negotiations was enough.

As far as I am concerned, the matter is now completely closed and the Cotswold district council are responsible for the failure of the whole scheme.”

58. EvJ 27.3.1975,6.

59. EvJ 24.4.1975.3,12.

60. In a letter in EvJ 17.7.1975,15, M.A. Grove complained that the planning authorities were “interfering with the natural environment of Campden. We have acres of questionable suburban development thrust upon us. We are allowed to set up museum-type efforts, or antique shops. But woe betide any local lad who requires to carry out his business on his own property.”

He pointed out that businesses already in the High Street, Sheep Street and Park Road could be closed under modern traffic regulations and concluded, “the cloud of bureaucracy is blighting this parish.”

61. EvJ 13.3.1969,9.

62. Ibid.

63. EvJ 2.5.1974,2.

64. Ibid.

65. EvJ 16.5.1974,17.

66. Ibid.

67. EvJ 2.12.1976,15.

68. Ibid. See also a letter in EvJ 9.12.1976,15, from Julie Wilson:

“Sir, I read in the Journal that permission has been withheld for Rusty Hart to continue to use the premises in Leysbourne, Campden, for the purpose of repairing motorcycles, mowers and light engines, etc.

I am a Campdonian, as were my forebears, and would live in Campden, were it possible, for I love Campden.

I remember it as a market town supplying the needs of the surrounding villages with its cattle market held monthly in the Square, its corn mills, its blacksmith, its printer, its saddler and maltster etc.

It is now losing its identity by becoming mainly residential, with little thought for any light industry or enterprise.

One of the needs of youth today is an efficient service for the maintenance of their motorcycles, and Rusty Hart has been seen to have adequately provided this need.

The site in question was a blacksmith’s shop and does not seem to intrude into the main street. I therefore suggest that Campden and the planners think again and allow youthful endeavour and enterprise to continue, not only in this instance, but in other instances that may occur, so that the town may keep its mixed rural identity, and thus avoid becoming too precious.”

69. Petition: EvJ 3.2.1977,22; only 10 of the signatures were from the neighbourhood of the proposed site, and some came from other towns and villages.

70. EvJ 17.3.1977,1.

71. EvJ 10.2.1972,1; 6.1.1972,1.

72. EvJ 17.2.1972,11. According to EvJ 5.4.1973,1, the tenants of the Vicarage Cottages refused to move out when modernisation work was to be done, so the work was dropped.

73. EvJ 3.5.1973,17.

74. EvJ 27.6.1968,5.

75. EvJ 25.10.1973,1; 2.5.1971,1. Cotswold Chronicle Oct. 1973, p.15.

76. EvJ 1.11.1973,1.

77. EvJ 29.11.1973,1.

78. EvJ 15.11.1973,17.

79. EvJ 1.11.1973,1.

80. EvJ 29.11.1973,1. Historically, of course, this is not quite accurate; see IV.2 especially.

81. EvJ 18.4.1971,1; 4.7.1974,2.

82. EvJ 4.7.1971,2.

83. EvJ 24.4.1975,3.

84. EvJ 4.11.1976,13.

85. Ibid.

86. EvJ 11.11.1976,15.

87. Ibid.

88. EvJ 3.4.1969,1; 1.5.1969,1.

89. EvJ 3.4.1969,11.

90. EvJ 29.3.1973,1.

91. Ibid.

92. EvJ 29.11.1973,2.

93. EvJ 6.6.1974,1; 31.1.1974,1.

94. EvJ 6.6.1974,1.

95. C. Fees, “Maypole Dance in the Twentieth Century”, op cit.

96. Francis Burns, Heigh for Cotswold: A History of Robert Dovers’ Olympick Games, op cit., p.39.

97. EvJ 5.6.1969,22.

98. C. Fees, “Maypole Dance in the Twentieth Century”, op cit.

99. EvJ 16.6.1977,27.

100. EvJ 4.8.1977,1.

101. EvJ 1.9.1977,1.

102. EvJ 6.4.1972,1.

103. EvJ 2.2.1978,1.

104. EvJ 19.4.1979,28.

105. EvJ 24.1.1980,13.

106. EvJ 18.10.1979,17. Lionel Ellis wrote, “The Campden Society is, I am told, the prime mover of this project, backed by the town council, which is mainly members of that Society.” EvJ 11.10.1979,19.

107. EvJ 18.10.1979,17; 27.9.1979,1.

108. EvJ 18.10.1979,17.

109. EvJ 11.10.1979, 19.

110. EvJ 18.10.1979,17.

111. EvJ 25.10.1979,19.

112. EvJ 8.11.1979,17.

113. EvJ 25.10.1979,19.

114. EvJ 25.10.1979,1.

115. EvJ 25.10.1979,18.

116. EvJ 10.1.1980,1; 17.1.1980,15; 31.1.1980,1.

117. EvJ 31.1.1980,1.

118. EvJ 28.2.1980,30.

119. EvJ 25.10.1979,1.

120. The Campden Society Newsletter no. 5, Oct. 1980.

121. The Campden Society Newsletter no. 6, Nov. 1980.

122. Craig Fees. ed. Local Studies by the students in Mrs. Thorpe’s third and fourth year class at St. James’ School, Chipping Campden, Glos., 1985, pp.2-5.

123. D.E.C. Eversley and Valerie Jackson, The Blockley Region: A Statistical Study, op cit., table V, p. 12; 45.3% were over 44. “Population explosion in Gloucestershire forecast”, EvJ 5.1.1984,1.

124. “Campden’s old folk increasing”, EvJ 29.9.1983,1.

125. EvJ 30.4.1981,20.

126. EvJ 11.11.1982,1.

127. EvJ 28.10.1982,5.

128. “Mayor attacked over criticism”, EvJ 9.5.1985,1.

129. Chipping Campden Bulletin no. 37, April 1986.

 

Footnotes V.3:
Discussion

1. Jack Tomes 17.2.1988, interview recorded in fieldnotes tape cas 225a; Jack Tomes 4.12.1978, recorded interview with Peter Harrop, Harrop Tape 17; Jack Tomes 1.11.1983, recorded interview cas 41; Jack Tomes 11.12.1981, recorded in fieldnotes.

2. Drinking is a given, as is discussed later. There is no option to performing inside peoples’ houses because asking for money is another essential feature of the custom, and it is taken to be against the law to knock on a door and ask for money: to be legal, the mumming must be performed inside, and by invitation. See Jack Tomes 11.1.1983, interview recorded in fieldnotes; Agnes Buckland 10.1.1987, interview recorded in fieldnotes, fn 98.

3. See IV.3 fn 62.

4. Jack Tomes 1.11.1983, recorded interview cas 41.

5. Jack Tomes 17.2.1988, interview recorded in fleldnote tapes cas 225a.

6. Jack Tomes 1.11.1983, interview recorded in fieldnotes.

7. Agnes Buckland 28.1.1983, interview recorded in fieldnotes; Jack Tomes 17.2.1988, interview recorded in fieldnote tapes cas 225a.

8. Jack Tomes, 11.12.1981, interview recorded in fieldnotes.

9. Jack Tomes 11.l.1983, recorded in fieldnotes; Jack Tomes 1.11.1983. recorded interview cas 41; Fred Coldicott 5.6.1986, recorded interview cas 161a.

10. Jack Tomes 1.11.1983. recorded interview cas 4l. “Tack” is a technical term used by the mummers themselves for their costumes and things.

11. TocH Newsletter no, 76, Jan. 1946.

12. Jack Tomes 1.11.1983, interview recorded in fieldnotes; Jack Tomes 17.2.1988, interview recorded in fieldnote tapes cas 225a.

13. Alf Stanbrook died in 1950 at the age of 91. He had served in the First World War, and was a strong supporter of the British Legion. In about 1885 he married Fred Farman’s sister, and was therefore brother-in-law to one of the prominent inter-war mummers. See his obituary, EvJ 16.9.1950,3.

14. Jack Tomes 17.2.1988, interview recorded in fieldnote tapes cas 225a. See also Jack Tomes 4.12.1978, recorded interview with Peter Harrop, Harrop Tape 17, for names of 1946 mummers and their roles.

15. EvJ 3.1.1953,3.

16. See below, fn 33. Jack Tomes 24.12.1983, recorded in fieldnotes tapes cas 55a, noted that even the feel of the hotels has changed, they used to really welcome the mummers. A discussion with the manager of the King’s Arms Hotel 25.12.1982 made it clear that the mummers were accepted as one of the facts of life, neither encouraged nor otherwise.

17. See II.2 fn 89.

18. Agnes Buckland 15.1.1983, interview recorded in fieldnotes; Agnes Buckland 10.1.1987, interview recorded in fieldnotes. In 1960 Sam Wanamaker “wished to acknowledge the hospitality he had enjoyed in the North Cotswold, Stratford and Evesham area while living at Broad Campden”, EvJ 29.4.1960,9. See also BBC Written Archives file M25/1090 “Birmingham. Wanamaker. Sam. Talks file 1 [of 1] 1953-1959”, where in November 1953 he is in London, while correspondence of 26.3.1959 and 6.4.1959 places him in Stratford actively engaged in productions, unable to come to London for interviews.

19. EvJ 7.1.1966,9.

20. Draft of letter Ernest Buckland to William Davis, n.d.. written on letter William M. Davis to Ernest Buckland, 29.10.1970.

21. Jack Tomes 4.12.1978, recorded interview with Peter Harrop, Harrop Tape 17; Jack Tomes 1.11.1983, recorded interview cas 41.

22. Jack Tomes 17.2.1988, interview recorded in fieldnote tapes cas 225a; Jack Tomes 1.11.1983., recorded interview cas 41.

23. Frank Nobes 21.12.1982, conversation recorded in fieldnotes, said that Charlie Blake was such a good mummer because he’s such a good storyteller, and that makes the tradition, it’s not just the play. For singing as integral, see Mrs. Agnes Buckland 15.1.1983 recorded in fieldnotes; Jack Tomes 1.11.1983, recorded interview cas 41, quoted in v.3.E.b (fn 87). For chat after, see, for example, fieldnotes 15.1.1983: Letter Richard Todd to Craig Fees 20.10.1982.

24. My construction from various conversations, among which see Jack Tomes 4.12.1978, recorded interview with Peter Harrop, Harrop Tape 17.

25. EvJ 27.6.1968,5.

26. Roseanne Lloyd 15.1.1983, conversation recorded in fieldnotes; Jack Tomes 1.11.1983. recorded interview cas 41.

27. Television: Charlie Blake 29.12.1981, recorded interview cas 3-4a.

More money about: Agnes Buckland 15.1.1983, interview recorded in fieldnotes; George Greenall 9.6.1982, recorded interview cas 24b.

Christmas: Jack Tomes 4.12.1978, recorded interview with Peter Harrop, Harrop Tape 17. See Gavin Weightman and Steve Humphries, Christmas Past, Sidgwick and Jackson, London, 1987.

28. The report on the sale of the Town Band’s instruments when the band was finally wound up in 1961 quoted N. Hitchman as saying, “We may like to make music again in Chipping Campden when the younger generation gets bored with all this ‘pop’ music…”, EvJ 31.3.1961,6.

29. Jack Tomes 4.12.1978, recorded interview with Peter Harrop, Harrop Tape 17. Charlie and Bernard Blake 29.12.1981, recorded interview cas 3-4a.

30. George Greenall 9.6.1982, recorded interview cas 24b: “…if it wasn’t for Jack Tomes and his family, those mummers wouldn’t go today, Campden, you can’t get them. They don’t want to because they can get money today, without going, years ago people were glad to get out…”

31. Jack Tomes 4.12.1978, recorded interview with Peter Harrop, Harrop Tape 17; Jack Tomes 1.11.1983. recorded interview cas 41.

32. Jack Tomes 17.2.1988, interview recorded in fieldnote tapes cas 225a. The mummers no longer go to the Noel Arms – H.J. Massingham’s ‘Nall Arms’ (see IV.l) – because a new owner who knew nothing about them refused to let the mummers perform one year when Ernest Buckland was the leader.

33. Jack Tomes 4.12.1978, recorded interview with Peter Harrop, Harrop Tape 17. Peter Harrop, The Performance of English Folk Plays, op cit., p.202: “it is not surprising to find that a recent attempt by another group to perform the play itself made him irate.”

34. EvJ 6.3.1964,1.

35. EvJ 29.5.1964,1.

36. EvJ 7.1.1966,9.

37. EvJ 10.1.174,1. [sic. typographical error in original ts.]

38. I am not aware that a study has been undertaken on the BBC’s interest in ‘folk custom’, so that this part of the statement is more of an impression than a founded argument. The file on Abbots Bromley Horn Dance, M14/1 “Birmingham. Recordings. Abbots Bromley Horn Dance”, covers the years 1947-1955. The file on Sam Bennett, Ilmington (Gloucestershire) folk musician, M25/72 “Midland Region. Artists. Bennett, Sam”, dates from 1946-1951. In 1952 the BBC launched its “Folk Music and Dialect Recording Scheme”, the aim of which “is to collect in recorded form, for the purposes of broadcasting, as much as possible of the surviving folk music and speech of the British Isles and Ireland. According to a document dated 16th May 1952 and circulated by the Head of Central Programme Operations, BBC Written Archives file M18/9 “Birmingham. Talks. Memos. Folk Music and Dialect. 1952″, the material to be collected includes folk song, instrumental folk music, folk custom (in so far as this proves suitable for sound recording), folk tale, local speech and dialect.” Correspondence in the same file shows that Peter Kennedy was employed on the scheme. In 1958 Maud Karpeles gave a talk of about three minutes on early folk song collectors in the West Midlands, BBC file M25/664 “Midland Region. Contributors. Talks. Karpeles, Maud. 15.12.1958-2.1.1959”. All of this material, at least, is located in the 1940s and 1950s, and it is therefore possible that the growth of television made folk-based programming less attractive.

The BBC Written Archives file M25/498 “Plays. Gardiner. Charles”, gives an insight into the broad impact of television on the presentation of “local” culture and the use of local talent. Gardiner, author of the Upper Slocombe series of BBC radio dialect comedies using local men (see V.l.B and Appendix D) suggested in 1951 that the Upper Slocombe concept could be adapted for television: “The actors would of course have to be professional and “Loamshire” dialect employed for the natives,” he commented, letter Charles Gardiner to David Gretton 9.12.1954. When he wrote to Gretton 22.10.1959 asking whether or not the Upper Slocombe concept was out of date for radio, Gretton responded 23.10.1959, “Your letter puts some searching questions. The nature of radio comedy is to fall flat without a studio audience to respond to it…That is the trouble of working to a public which consists of one or two people isolated in a living room.

“We are currently trying the experiment of putting on a half-hour show in front of an invited audience in a hall in Henley-in-Arden. We shall record it with we hope their laughter and applause. If the combination of what happens on the stage and what the audience adds to it is sufficiently promising we may try to make a series…[but] I don’t feel that the sort of scenes you used to write for your climax could be acted by real people on a real stage, except at a price which would put them beyond our reach…I think your material is too good to waste. Our job is to find the right way of presenting it to the new kind of sound radio which has been growing up in these years of mass television.” The ultimate solution was to get Gardiner into Talks as opposed to Drama.

A letter to Gardiner from Midland Region’s new Drama Producer Hugh Stewart, 27.1.1960, was more blunt: “This kind of theme and method of presentation is, I feel sure, no longer acceptable to listeners as radio drama. It is too turgid, too pale in colouring for a mass taste enormously sharpened by the event of television and the recent advances made by radio drama in all aspects of the medium.”

The culture of the medium had moved away from the type of country-life presentation that inter-war tourism and Upper Slocombe had thrived on.

39. I have been told several times that the mumming is dead. See, for example, John and Phyllis Horne, 8.6.1982 recorded interview cas 23a, where they dated the demise to twenty years previously, or about the time when the flood of incomers coincided with the rise of the shadow mumming.

40. Jack Tomes 1.11.1983, recorded interview cas 41; Jack Tomes 1.11.1983, interview recorded in fieldnotes.

41. EvJ 7.1.1966,9.

42. EvJ 2.8.1952,3.

43. EvJ 29.1.1955,4.

44. EvJ 4.6.1955,4; 30.7.1955,7.

45. EvJ 4.6.1955,4: 7.4.1956,4; 2.8.1957,4.

46. EvJ 28.6.1957,4.

47. EvJ 28.9.1956,4; 3.4.1969,1.

48. EvJ 31.1.1953,4; 31.10.1953,4; 30.11.1956,4.

49. EvJ 7.4.1951,8.

50. EvJ 3.4.1954,4.

51. Ibid.

52. EvJ 29.11.1957,4.

53. EvJ 3.4.1969,11.

54. Jack Tomes 4.12.1978, recorded interview with Peter Harrop, Harrop Tape 17; Jack Tomes 1.11.1983, recorded in fieldnotes.

55. Obituary. EvJ 29.6.1978,2. He became ill for the first time at Christmas 1970, though as the Bath University performance itself shows, he returned to lead the mummers.

56. Tub Reynolds 1.3.1984, recorded interview cas 62.

57. Frank Nobes 21.12.1982, conversation recorded in fieldnotes.

58. Ibid.

59. Tub and Betty Reynolds 1.3.1984, recorded interview cas 62.

60. Frank Nobes 21.12.1982, conversation recorded in fieldnotes.

61. Tub and Betty Reynolds 1.3.1984, recorded interview cas 62.

62. Letter David Bland to Craig Fees 5.2.1985.

63. Report of the parish council meeting about the mumming which “had not been out as usual this Christmas”, EvJ 10.1.1974,1. Jack Tomes 17.2.1988, interview recorded in fieldnote tapes cas 225a, pointed out that most other people really have no way of knowing whether the mummers have been out, certainly not the parish council.

64. Obituary, EvJ 29.6.1978,2.

65. Jack Tomes 4.12.1978, recorded interview with Peter Harrop, Harrop Tape 17.

66. Roseanne Lloyd 15.1.1983, conversation recorded in fieldnotes.

67. Jack Tomes 1.11.1983, recorded interview cas 41.

68. Ibid.

69. See fn 7.

70. Jack Tomes 1.11.1983, recorded interview cas 41.

71. The breathalyser test was brought in under the Road Safety Act of 1967. I am grateful to Steve Roud for this information.

72. On not altering it, see Jack Tomes 1.11.1983, recorded interview cas 41; Jack Tomes 4.12.1978, recorded interview with Peter Harrop, Harrop Tape 17: “You see all these things, all these things is dying out, you know. And its, you know, I don’t like to see it go now”. Jack Tomes 11.12.1981, recorded in fieldnotes: “He means to guarantee it keeps going, as it has been going in his family for 129 years”.

73. Jack Tomes 1.11.1983, interview recorded in fieldnotes.

74. Jack Tomes 4.12.1978, recorded interview with Peter Harrop, Harrop Tape 17.

75. Jack Tomes 1.11.1983, interview recorded in fieldnotes.

76. Ibid.

77. For turnover in residents, see ibid; and Jack Tomes 1.11.1983, recorded interview cas 41. The inference is mine.

78. Jack Tomes 1.11.1983, recorded interview cas 41.

79. Charlie Blake 29.12.1981, recorded interview cas 3-4a.

80. Christopher Whitfield, “The Christmas Mummers”; see Appendix G.

81. Jack Tomes 1.11.1983, recorded interview cas 41.

82. EvJ 7.1.1966,9.

83. Fred Benfleld 9.6.1982, recorded interview cas 23b-24a; Fred Coldieott 28.9.1985, recorded interview cas 121b; George Greenall 15.12.1982, interview recorded in fieldnotes; Jack Tomes 1.11.1983, interview recorded in fieldnotes.

84. Jack Tomes 1.11.1983, recorded interview cas 41.

85. Jack Horne 8.6.1982, recorded interview cas 23a.

86. When the Parochial Church Council was seeking a new vicar in 1969, applicants were told that “The chief source of wealth is the tourist industry which is growing the whole time,” and that “There is also a large, and ever growing intelligentsia population of retired university people, and usually a retired bishop or two,” in a trend toward retirement residence which “has accelerated considerably in the last 5 years.” In “The Traditions of the Parish”, they noted that the parish had been moderately low church within living memory, but that with the new residents the prospective vicar “should be liberal enough in his views to include and win the allegiance of those who may be of slightly higher or lower churchmanship.” Documents in St. James’ Church Muniment Room.

87. See fn 27.

88. Jack Tomes 1.11.1983, recorded interview cas 41.

89. Jack Tomes 4.12.1978, recorded interview with Peter Harrop, Harrop Tape 17.

90. Leslie Tomes is, by all accounts, an excellent guitarist, who has been playing regularly with a group a number of years. He and his band played for the party in the town hall following the wedding of his cousin, fieldnotes 15.1.1983. See also fieldnotes for 31.12.1984-1.1.1985.

91. Jack Tomes 1.11.1983, recorded interview cas 41.

92. Jack Tomes 4.12.1978, recorded interview with Peter Harrop, Harrop Tape 17.

93. Jack Tomes 15.1.1983, interview recorded in fieldnotes; Jack Tomes 4.12.1978, recorded Interview with Peter Harrop. Harrop Tape 17: Jack Tomes 5.12.1986, interview recorded in fieldnotes.

94. Jack Tomes 4.12.1978, recorded Interview with Peter Harrop, Harrop Tape 17.

95. Jack Tomes 24.12.1983, interview recorded in fieldnotes tape cas 55a.

96. Jack Tomes 4.12.1978, recorded interview with Peter Harrop, Harrop Tape 17.

97. Jack Tomes 5.12.1986, interview recorded in fieldnotes.

98. Jack Tomes 17.2.1988, interview recorded in fieldnote tapes cas 225a.

99. Ibid.

100. Agnes Buckland 10.1.1987, interview recorded in fieldnotes: “She had to write all the parts down for the broadcast, so that they could get it timed, see how long each bit would take. Ernest wrote on the top of it “Copyright” – and something like “you have to ask us before you do it.””

101. Although dated 16.5.1952, the document entitled “BBC Folk Music and Dialect Recording Scheme” referred to in footnote 36 very likely codified BBC practice of longer standing. Section 5 of the document, “Copyright”, noted: “When traditional music is first reduced to writing or any other tangible form of permanent representation such as recording that particular version of it becomes the copyright property of the person who so writes it down or records it.” Section 7 deals with payment, but in terms of performance rather than copyright.

102. Jack Tomes 11.1.1983, interview recorded in fieldnotes.

103. Jack Tomes 4.12.1978, recorded interview with Peter Harrop, Harrop Tape 17.

104. See fn 16.

105. Letter Craig Fees to the Editor, the Evesham Journal 15.3.1986: “I am currently writing my Doctoral dissertation on the Christmas mummers of Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire. As you may know, the Campden team is one of the last traditional mummers’ sides in England, having a documented history (thanks to the Evesham Journal to the 1860’s, and an oral tradition which takes it back further.” The response, letter Andrew Martin, Editor, to Craig Fees 3.4.1986, simply gave permission and procedure for obtaining copies of the photographs.

106. On the question of “cultural property” and “heritage” see Stephen Sayers, “Folklore as Science: Some Remarks”, in Talking Folklore 1:1(1986), 22, and particularly Steve Roud’s “Another Reply to Stephen Sayers” in the same issue, p. 31. For a discussion of “cultural property” featuring the Elgin Marbles see a series of articles which appeared in the Times Literary Supplement 25.7.1986: Robert Browning, “The Plundering of Nationhood”, pp. 805-806; Michael Dummett. “The Ethics of Cultural Property”, pp. 809-810; Lyndel Prott and Patricia O’Keefe, “Taking Charge of the Cultural Heritage”, pp. 811-812. The discussion continued in subsequent issues. I am grateful to Steve Roud for drawing my attention to these articles.

107. See II.2 fn 89.

108. Lawrence Ladbrook 9.2.1984, recorded interview cas 6la.

109. Sue Tomes 15.1.1983, conversation recorded in fieldnotes; Jack Tomes 17.2.1988, interview recorded in fieldnote tapes cas 225a. See obituary of Jack Tomes’ grandmother, Kate Buckland, EvJ 29.3.1957,6, which notes that she was a Woolliams on her mother’s side, a Benfleld on her father’s. She had been married to William Buckland over sixty years.

110. Jack Tomes’ father, a labourer, was married to Sue Buckland. Her father, William Buckland, married Kate Benfield in St. James’ Church on 17.8.1898, when he was a gardener. William Buckland’s father, Emmanuel Buckland, was listed as a horse dealer. Kate Benfield’s father, Benjamin Benfield of Chipping Campden, was listed in the marriage record as a warehouseman. Kate Benfield’s father Benjamin married Susannah Williams (sic) in St. James’ Church on 25.10.1863, when he was a groom, and when both were living in Chipping Campden. Benjamin Benfield’s father, also Benjamin, was listed as a labourer. Susannah Williams’ father, Richard, was listed as a sawyer.

111. TocH Newsletter no. 76, Jan. 1946.

112. Cotswold Journal 24.12.1986,13.

113. Agnes Buckland 10.1.1987, interview recorded in fieldnotes.

114. See Eddie Tomes’ obituary, EvJ 17.2.1977,2; Charlie Wright’s obituary, EvJ 28.2.1974,2.

115. See fn 57.

116. This is constructed from various conversations over the years with a number of different people and is, I think, accurate.

117. See Jack Tomes 1.11.1983, recorded interview cas 41.

118. Roseanne Lloyd 15.1.1983, conversation recorded in fieldnotes.

119. Agnes Buckland 28.1.1983, interview recorded in fieldnotes.

120. Jack Tomes has been quite frank with me about his suspicions from the beginning, and we had a specific conversation about it on 18.12.1983, recorded in fieldnotes.

121. Jack Tomes once told me that for a hundred pounds or so he would give the play up, a remark I took to be a rhetorical expression. Unrecorded, but see fieldnotes 5.12.1986.

122. “Poaching” was the word used in Jack Tomes’ recorded interview with Peter Harrop, 4.12.1978, Harrop Tape 17, when discussing a group singing the mummers’ song in the folk club.

123. Jack Tomes 17.2.1988, interview recorded in fieldnote tapes cas 225a: Having received a letter from the Stratford Morris and Sword Dancers, 25.11.1987, saying that they intended doing the Snowshill Mummers play in December in the Eight Bells pub in Campden, and hoping he wouldn’t mind, Jack Tomes sent them a letter pointing out that the Campden team did not do the mumming in other peoples’ territory and did not expect other people to do it in theirs. The Stratford team respected this, although they apparently sent a man to photograph the mummers (without asking permission) in the Volunteer on Christmas Eve.