1988: Christmas Mumming in a North Cotswold Town. Footnotes, Section I

Craig Fees, “Christmas Mumming in a North Cotswold Town: With Special Reference to Tourism, Urbanisation and Immigration-Related Social Change“, PhD., Institute of Dialect and Folklife Studies, School of English, University of Leeds, England (1988).



Apart from standard academic abbreviations such as “ibid.”, meaning that a reference in a footnote is the same as that in the footnote above; “op cit.”, to indicate that the full citation of a reference in a footnote will be found in an earlier footnote; “fn” to stand for “footnote”; “ms.” to stand for “manuscript”, and so on. I have used the following abbreviations:

BBC: British Broadcasting Corporation
EvJ: Evesham Journal (also the Tabloid and Cotswold Journal, The Journal, and the Cotswold Journal. See Bibliography 2)
GLLHC: Gloucester City Library Local History Collection
GRO: Gloucestershire Record Office
Journals: Ashbee Journals (Kings College, Cambridge)
Memoirs: Ashbee Memoirs (Kings College, Cambridge)
TBGAS: Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society

All interviews, unless otherwise indicated, were conducted by me, and were recorded either on tape recorder (indicated by the phrase “recorded interview”), or in writing afterwards (indicated by the phrase “recorded in fieldnotes”). Citations to interviews recorded on tape recorder include the date of the recording and the tape reference, which is made up either of the letters “RR” or “cas” followed by a number, according to my cataloguing system.


I: Introduction

1. For recent surveys and critiques of traditional drama scholarship, see Paul Smith, Variation in the Manner of Adoption of Cultural Traditions: A Conceptual Framework and Application, PhD. dissertation, University of Sheffield, 1985, pp. 12-17; Simon Lichman, The Gardener’s Story and What Came Next: A Contextual Analysis of the Marshfield Paper Boys’ Mumming Play, PhD. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1981, pp. 2-19; Craig Fees, “Toward Establishing the Study of Folk Drama as a Science”, Roomer 4:5(1984), 41-51; Craig Fees, reviews of Ronald Vince, Ancient and Medieval Theatre: A Historiographical Handbook (Westwood, Connecticut., and London, Greenwood Press, 1984) in Lore and Language 4:2 (1985), 126-7; and Roomer 6:3 (1986), 18-22; Craig Fees, Mediaeval Theater in Indo-European Context, m.a. thesis, Occidental College, Los Angeles, 1981.

2. Peter Harrop, The Performance of English Folk Plays: A Study in Dramatic Form and Social Function, PhD. dissertation, Institute of Dialect and Folklife Studies, University of Leeds, 1980.

3. Ibid., p. 175: “…hotels and tea shops…pottery workshops and boutiques…” Compare the statement of the then Town Mayor, Horace Haines, in 1985, that the High Street stores were “little places selling rubbish…rubbish is things which are not essential…just gimmicky things,” EvJ 9.5.1985,1.

4. See, for example, Howard Newby, Green and Pleasant Land? Social Change in Rural England, Wildwood House, London, 1985 (1979). Newby tends to see the cause/effect relation differently, however, saying that the decline in Agriculture has left a vacuum in local housing which outsiders have then filled. This was true only in the early stage, as far as Chipping Campden is concerned. From the coming of the Guild of Handicraft in 1902 incomers have been housed at the expense of labourers in a cycle of displacement whose logical end – barring a collapse in the economy, or active intervention – is the expulsion of that part of the native population which does not already own its own housing. For a recent discussion of this process as a national phenomenon, see Roisin McAuley, “City Gatecrashers Take Over the Countryside”, The Listener 13.8.1987, 9-10.

5. See, in particular, Fredrik Barth, ed., Ethnic Groups and Boundaries, Universitetsforlaget, Oslo etc., 1982 (1969); John Bennett, ed., The New Ethnicity, Perspectives From Ethnology, West Pub. Co., St. Paul, etc., 1975; Jens Brosted et al, Native Power: The Quest for Autonomy and Nationhood of Indigenous Peoples, Universitetsforlaget As, Bergen etc., 1985, and other works cited in Bibliography 5.

6. I made this statement and the arguments In “Toward Establishing the Study of Folklore as a Science”, op cit., in 1984. In “Notes and Queries”, Roomer 5:3 (1985), 30, I put the statement again, asking for any challenges. There have been none as yet.

7. See Craig Fees, “Toward Establishing the Study of Folk Drama as a Science”, op cit., and Craig Fees, Mediaeval Theater in Indo-European Context, op cit., pp. 1-10.

8. “Audience” and “performer” are terms of convenience to indicate who is paying attention and who is collecting and repaying it. This determination is itself part of the technology of performance.

9. Fred Coldicott, Memories of an Old Campdonian, ms. in possession of author and Craig Fees. See also Fred Coldicott 6.2.1986, recorded interview cas 140b; Fred Coldicott 8.3.1987, recorded interview cas 200a.

10. Alan Dundes, Interpreting Folklore, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1980, p.6.

11. The Rev. W.H. Stanley, in the Britannia Benefit Society’s annual meeting at Whitsun, 1882: “How much better the homes of working men would be if each member of the family treated others as though they were of noble birth. It was a mistake for members of a family to get too familiar with each other, for “familiarity breeds contempt”. Nothing could be better in the home than complete courtesy.” EvJ 3.6.1882,5.

12. See Everett C. Hughes, “Colonies, Colonization and Colonialism”, in The New Ethnicity: Perspectives from Ethnology, op cit., p. 19: “But what is an empty country, region, or even vacant lot? The Romans made country empty by conquering the natives and setting up their own kind of agriculture. The European colonizers of the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries were generally met by natives when they landed in what was to them a new country; to these Europeans much of the New World was empty. A vacant lot may be populated with boys playing ball, until someone with a land title, a building permit, some capital, and a bulldozer turns up. To the builder the site has been vacant…”

13. For more discussion of the impact of this collapse on my work, see Craig Fees, “Community Folklore: Folk Memory in a North Cotswold Community”, Talking Folklore 1:4(1988), 22-38.